Save the Children believes every child deserves a future. We endeavor to ensure children a healthy start in life, the opportunity to learn and protection from harm. We do whatever it takes for children – every day and in times of crisis – transforming their lives and the future we share. Save the Children operates across all regions of Ethiopia with a vision of creating a world in which every child attains the right to survival, protection, development and participation. Its mission is to inspire breakthroughs in the way the world treats children, and to achieve immediate and lasting change in their lives.
Save the Children has long-standing experience and particular expertise in implementing programmes for children on the move globally and in Africa, including cross-border programing targeting children and young people in irregular and forced migration and targeting sending, transit and destination areas. In Ethiopia, we have multi-sector programs that address particular issues of highly vulnerable children including children involved in unsafe irregular migration and their host communities. Our program uses multi-sectoral and coordinated approaches that deliver integrated services for children at-risk of irregular migration, those in transit, and upon arrival to longer-term destinations.
The east migration route is one of our program target areas, where large number of unaccompanied children involve in unsafe migration, using the irregular migration routes through Djibouti with destinations to the Middle East. Reports indicate that Djibouti is a major transit country for migrants from Horn of Africa to Yemen and Gulf States. Between 2008 and June 2016, more than 365,000 migrants and asylum seekers arrived in Yemen via the Red Sea departing from coastal areas around Obock, Djibouti. Of these, more than 80% were Ethiopians. Evidence suggest that children (often unaccompanied) make up a sizeable proportion of migrants (about 30% with 95% of these being Ethiopians) traveling to and through Djibouti, and are more vulnerable to trafficking, and to suffering abuse at the hands of smugglers/ traffickers.
There is limited data, programming or policy development related to the particular risks and challenges faced by unaccompanied migrant children through this route. This is mainly related to lack of comprehensive studies on the risks and challenges of unaccompanied children in the Eastern route. In the frame of the AICS funded project, 'Azioni di prevenzione e support a favore di bambini e giovani coinvolti nella migrazione rischiosa e tratta lungo la rotta migratoria dell'est, o che sono ritornati in Etiopia.' Save the Children intends to conduct a study aiming at informing programming and advocacy work around child migrants through the East Migration Route.
The overall objective of the study is to provide in-depth understanding on the trends, factors and risks of unaccompanied child migration from Ethiopia through the East migration routes, to inform responses at different level.
Specifically, the study will:
- Understand the trends and risks associated to unaccompanied child migration from Ethiopia through the Eastern Migration route and also information that will be collected from returnees who came through the route towards Yemen, Saudi Arabia and UAE.
- Analyze factors behind unaccompanied child migration (i.e protection, social, economic and political).
- Understand existing responses and gaps (at systems, programming and policy level) to ensure durable solution for child migrants.
- Provide practical recommendations for research, policy and programming.
III. Research Question
Demographic information and trends of child migration through the irregular migration route:
- Provide demographic information (including age, gender, family status, ethnicity, religion, income, occupation, education level, etc.) about children who have already been involved in migration, returnees, and children who are likely to be involved in unsafe/risky migration through the Easter migration route.
- Describe key trends of unsafe/risky migration from Ethiopia, involving children? (Disaggregated by age, gender family and socio-economic status of migrants, accompanied or unaccompanied, etc). Have the trends changed overtime and how and what factors influenced that? What are the key migration transit points and destinations?
This will require an intensive literature review and the review and analysis of existing data from key stakeholders.
Migration decision and root causes:
- Identify and analyze the root causes or factors influencing children’s decisions to migrate, including:
- Protection factors: what protection factors influence decisions of children to engage in unsafe/risky migration and how? Please specify if specific factors are identified for girls and boys. Identify vulnerabilities and protection risks for girls and boys that could act as root causes (eg lack of access to education and which level of education, gender inequality and cultural pressure such as for child/forced marriage, issues of family disintegration, lack of social cohesion, etc). Who are more affected in unsafe/risky migration, boys or girls? Why so?
What were risks and vulnerabilities of returnee children when they came back to Ethiopia? Please be specific for girls and boys.
- Financial and social aspirations of migrants: On the financial side, how much do people think they can earn at home? Abroad? Do they expect to send remittances home? How much? On the social side, what are the anticipated opportunities and risks of migrating in relation to their social status? What options are there at home to build social status?
- Other political and safety related factors within the community of origin that may contribute to migration of unaccompanied children?
- Identify and analyze the links between the different factors that influence the decision to migrate.
- Who are the actors involved (in a more or less aware and participatory way) in unsafe migration (illegal brokers, transportation services, hotels along the route and at the border)?
- What are the routes mostly used by children engaging in unsafe/risky migration?
- Could you please describe what happens at the borders and what are the most relevant risks children face while crossing?
- Do you know if migration routes have changed in the past 4 years and, if so, could you please describe the change?
- Could you also add any geo-political analysis (for example, reflecting on any change in the migration route as affected by political decisions and context in the countries of transit and destination)?
- Do you know if returnees had any influence on the perceptions of the communities of origin on migration? Who and what influences migration decision making? What is the role of families, community and peers in the decision making process? Are there ethnicity / religious aspects connected to the decision to migrate along the eastern route?
- What reliable alternatives do children aspire to have (as a minimum) within their community than taking the irregular migration path?
- Identify intended final destinations and paths, including any links to migrate internally and then onward (cross border).
- Identify perceived risks from the migrant’s points of view and eventual protective measures they take during the journey. How do children understand risk and how does their interpretation of risk impact on their decision making? And the perspective of their parents/ caregivers (from the point for migrant children)?
- Identify perceived risks of girls and possible protective measures they use along the journey. Identify perceived risks of boys and possible protective measures they have along the journey.
- Are there specific paths, drivers and push factors that influence girls’ decision to engage in unsafe/risky migration? Are there specific paths, drivers and push factors that influence boys’ decision to engage in unsafe/risky migration?
- Who are more involved in unsafe/risky migration, girls or boys and why?
- Do girls travel alone, in groups or with their family? Are they involved in migration networks offering support at destination in exchange for sexual or labor exploitation in transit and at destination?
Existing Services/ Responses:
- Understand particular vulnerability, needs and challenges of child migrants: how are the needs, vulnerabilities and challenges different from other vulnerable children within the host community? (This will require to collect information to understand vulnerabilities of both migrants and children in the host community).
- Understand protection and risk factors among migrant children and strengths and positive coping strategies that programs may build on.
- Understand child migrants’ perspectives regarding their inclusion within the host communities (including relations with peers and the host community in general).
- What are the key needs for support (service of children involved in migration? What services are available for them, are they accessible and user-friendly? Who are the main service providers and what type of services do they offer? How many migrant or returnee children (disaggregate by sex and age) have received services so far by these service providers ? What are the major gaps in service provision and availability according to children? How is this different from other vulnerable children in the host communities?
- What are the challenges that migrant children face in accessing services (identify the service) and what resources do they use to overcome the challenges?
- Draw practical recommendations to address the particular vulnerabilities and challenges of migrants; and to address service gaps (with due consideration of recommendations from the migrants themselves).
Review and understand national and cross boarder policy and programming initiatives/ frameworks in light of child migrants:
- Identify and analyze national and cross border policy and programming initiatives related to migration that Ethiopia is part of; analyze to what extent these frameworks are child centered, and existing gaps to further advocate for.
- Understand key national migration focused platforms groups and in the study areas, and gaps to further building on; analysis opportunities and spaces that SC and other partners to engage in the platforms for policy and programing advocacy and draw practical recommendations.
IV. Scope of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to understand the overall cross-border child migration from Ethiopia through the East Migration Routes and to inform appropriate responses at different level. The study will specifically focus on unaccompanied child migrants and returnees through the Eastern Migration Route with a specific focus on Dire Dawa Town and the main in and out transit centers /towns to and from Dire Dawa. Other specific locations or main transit centers /towns will be identified based on field consultation with stakeholders. Information related to Djibouti will be collected through returnees in and around Dire dawa, KII with IOM and UNICEF and the review of secondary data.
The study will collect information on migrant and returnee children demography and migration trends in the study area; analyze socio cultural factors and risks involved in child migration; explore how and why children consider migration an opportunity in life; understand polices, systems, structures and ongoing efforts to provide programmatic recommendations.
The study should be specific to the stated target group and the study areas as clarified in this TOR and through intensive literature/document review and key formant interview will project future trends of migration along the eastern route towards Djibouti and Yemen.
Duration of the study will be two month period of time starting from the agreement signing.
All these will help the researcher to limit and clearly understand the scope of the research and to designed appropriate research approach and plan.
This study will employ a mixed methods approach to draw empirical evidence that will be generated from quantitative and qualitative data. Survey and focus group discussions will be used for migrants and returnee children at transit centers and also children on the move in Dire Dawa city. Respondent migrant and returnee children, who will be found in transit centers during data collection, will be involved.
Key informant interviews will also be used with service providers targeting migrant and returnee children, including mandated government partners, IOM, UNICEF, GIZ, other relevant international and local NGOs in Dire Dawa and also other transit towns on the way to Dire Dawa and from Dire Dawa to Djibouti, that will be further identified in field consultation with key stakeholders.
The study will hinge on comprehensive secondary data on migrant and returnee children in eastern routes specifically Dire Dawa, national level as well as in Djibouti.
Child participatory study methods and child friendly interview tools should also be used and a strong gender and inclusive lens will be required.
VI. Qualification and Experience of the Study Team:
The consultant is expected to bring together a balanced level of national (in Ethiopia) and international expertise relevant for the research. The consultant(s) should be able to bring into the research Ethiopian counterparts, such as academic institutions, national research centers or similar. He/they should be able to collect data in country and to manage autonomously the process of data collectors’ selection and training.
Team members should have proven expertise on migration and strong experience in research with active participation of children, adolescents and youth. In addition to this, team members should be experienced in participatory methods, qualitative and qualitative research, working with local communities, and in data collection and analysis.
The following are requirements for the Consultant(s):
- Advanced degree (Masters or PhD) in relevant social science field of study, including sociology, social work, economics, law and human rights.
- A minimum of 8 years of practical work experience in the fields of migration, child protection and self-reliance.
- Experience working in most vulnerable population: migrant and refugee children, adolescent and youth.
- Experience in conducting similar studies as well as experience of social research and analysis.
- Experience in training and mentoring of qualitative researchers and enumerators.
- Good analytical skills and report writing experiences to international and national organizations.
- Experience in the region and local knowledge of the country offices the study targets, as well as in the thematic area.
- Experiences in interpersonal communication and facilitating learning meetings and workshops.
VII. Responsibilities of the Consultant:
- Detailed work plan with milestones.
- Inception report which include the study methodology, sampling design, data collection tools, process of data collection analysis and report writing, study team level of effort, schedule, etc.
- Final data collection tools.
- Draft study report and presentation.
- Final report, incorporating suggestions and recommendations.
- Submit all data files/ audios/photos in printed and electronic format and completed questionnaires.
- Prepare and submit comprehensive, coherent, well-structured first draft report of the research to SC.
- Present the results in a validation workshop to stakeholders.
- Submit the final research report and an executive summary (hard and soft copies).
- Submit raw data and the database.
- Submit a power point presentation with main results.
VIII. Responsibilities of SC:
- Facilitate orientation session on child safeguarding for both consultant(s) and data collectors to comply with SCI’s child safeguarding policy and code of conduct.
- Organize a briefing session on the objectives and scope of the consultancy work.
- Provide the necessary reference documents for the consultant.
- Provide comments/feedback on the comprehensive technical reports/inception report and approve the design and tools.
- Provide inputs and feedback throughout the development of the assignment.
- Ensure that the comments/feedback given on the draft reports are fully incorporated.
- Support the consulting firm while facilitating of the field work.
- Facilitate payments for the consultant as per the agreed terms and conditions.
- Closely follow-up the consultancy work.
- Write support letter to relevant government and non-governmental organizations as per the need.
- Organize review/ validation meeting for the draft research report with Save the Children technical staff and other key stakeholders engaged in the study to secure feedback.
- Ensure that the comments/feedback given on the draft report are fully incorporated in the final report.
How to apply:
I. Instructions on Proposal Submission:
Bidders are required to prepare and submit the following documents to: email@example.com
- Technical Proposal (a. Company/Organization profile and expertise; b. Proposed Methodology and Implementation Plan c. Management Structure and Key Personnel (CVs)
Please use the form included in Annex (see page 13).
Financial Proposal (Detailed budget in EUR)
Any attachments and/or appendices that relates to the Proposal.
Please, write in the mail subject: Ethiopia - Research Migration Consultancy
Deadline: 22th January 2020.
Any Proposal received by SC after the deadline shall be declared late and will not be considered.
II. Term of Payment
- 30% of the total amount shall be paid upon signing of the contractual agreement.
- 40% shall be paid on submission of the draft reports (situational analysis on vulnerability of child domestic workers, response mechanisms and legal and policy frameworks).
- 30% shall be paid after submission of the final report both in hard and soft copies.
Save the Children reserves the right to choose any one of those applying or reject all bids