A (14) | B (3) | C (29) | D (9) | E (10) | F (2) | G (3) | H (8) | I (11) | K (1) | L (3) | M (7) | N (2) | P (12) | Q (4) | R (8) | S (17) | T (1) | U (4) | V (2) | W (2) | ا (1)

Abandoned explosive ordnance

Explosive ordnance that has not been used during an armed conflict, that has been left behind or dumped by a party to an armed conflict, and which is no longer under control of the party that left it behind or dumped it. Abandoned explosive ordnance may or may not have been primed, fused, armed or otherwise prepared for use. See also Explosive ordnance and Unexploded ordnance.


A deliberate act with actual or potential negative effects upon a child’s safety, well-being, dignity, and development. It is an act that takes place in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust, or power.


The proportion of the population that can use a service or facility.


Entails the removal or mitigation of barriers to people’s meaningful participation. These barriers and the measures needed will vary according to disability, age, illness, literacy level, status of language, legal and/or social status, etc.


The process of using power responsibly, taking account of, and being held accountable by, different stakeholders, and primarily those who are affected by the exercise of such power.

Adequate care

Where a child's basic physical, emotional, intellectual and social needs are met by his or her caregivers and the child is developing according to his or her potential.


Defined generally as a person 9–19 years. In the CPMS, the term refers specifically to persons aged 9– 17 years old, given the focus on children as defined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Adolescence can be broken down into the following sub-group: pre-adolescence (9–10), early adolescence (10–14), middle adolescence (15–17) and late adolescence (18–19).

Alternative care

The care provided for children by caregivers who are not their usual primary caregiver.

Alternatives to detention or to deprivation of liberty

Measures (legislation, policy, or practice) aimed at preventing the unnecessary detention of persons, including children being formally processed through the criminal justice system and children who are migrants. Alternatives to detention do not involve deprivation of liberty.


The process of establishing the impact of a crisis on a society, including needs, risks, capacities and solutions. See Standard 4 on Programme Cycle Management for information on types of assessments for Child Protection.

At-risk groups / individuals

Children who are at risk of their protection rights being violated. See Risks and Vulnerability.


Barriers are defined as factors that prevent a child from having full and equal access to and participation in humanitarian assistance and protection. These can be environmental, including physical barriers (such as the presence of stairs and the absence of a ramp or an elevator) and communication barriers (such as only one format being used to provide information), attitudinal barriers (such as negative perceptions children with disabilities), and institutional barriers (such as policies that can lead to discrimination against certain groups). Some barriers exist prior to the conflict or natural disaster; others may be created by the humanitarian response.

Best interests of the child

The right of the child to have his or her best interests assessed and taken as a primary consideration in reaching a decision. It refers to the well-being of a child and is determined by a variety of individual circumstances (age, level of maturity, the presence or absence of parents, the child's environment and experiences). See Principle 4.

Best Interests Determination Best Interests Procedure (BIP)

A formal process with strict procedural safeguards designed to determine the child’s best interests for particularly important decisions affecting the child. It should facilitate adequate child participation without discrimination, involve decision-makers with relevant areas of expertise and balance all relevant factors in order to identify and recommend the best option. (UNHCR Best Interests Determination Handbook 2011, p. 110)

Capacity strengthening

The strengthening of knowledge, ability, skills and resources to help individuals, communities or organizations to achieve agreed goals.


An individual, community, or institution (including the State) with clear responsibility (by custom or by law) for the well-being of the child. It most often refers to a person with whom the child lives and who provides daily care to the child.

Caregiving environment

The direct physical and human environment children live in, and is unique for every child.

Case management

An approach to address the needs of an individual child and their family in an appropriate, systematic and timely manner, through direct support and/or referrals.


The key worker in a case who maintains responsibility for the child’s care from case identification to case closure, in a case management approach. Other social service practitioners (such as social workers) or even other professionals (such as health workers) may take on a caseworker role as well.

Cash and voucher assistance (CVA)

All programmes where cash transfers or vouchers for goods or services are directly provided to recipients.

Centrality of Protection

The recognition that the protection of all persons affected and at risk must inform humanitarian decision-making and response, including engagement with States and non-State parties to conflict. Protection is recognised as the purpose and intended outcome of humanitarian action and must be central to preparedness efforts, as part of immediate and life-saving activities, and throughout the duration of humanitarian response and beyond.


Persons below the age of 18 years.


Working methods that do not discriminate against children and that take into account their age, evolving capacities, diversity and capabilities. These methods promote children’s confidence and ability to learn, speak out, share and express their views. Sufficient time and appropriate information and materials are provided and communicated effectively to children. Staff and adults are approachable, respectful and responsive.

Child friendly spaces (CFS)

Safe spaces where communities (and humanitarian actors) create nurturing environments in which children can access free and structured play, recreation, leisure and learning activities. See Standard 15: Group activities for child well-being.

Child-headed household

A household in which a child or children (typically an older sibling) assumes the primary, day-to-day responsibility for running the household, and providing and caring for those within it.

Child in conflict with the law

Any child who comes into contact with law enforcement authorities because he or she is alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the criminal law. Children may be arrested for activities that are officially criminalized in legislation but which the international human rights community calls to be decriminalized as a matter of urgency (e.g. status offences).

Child in contact with the justice system

Any child who comes into contact with the juvenile justice system or the criminal justice system as a victim/survivor, witness or in conflict with the law, and/or any child who comes into contact with the civil and/or administrative justice systems. This term is broader than ‘child in conflict with the law’.

Child labour

Work carried out to the detriment and endangerment of a child, in violation of international law and national legislation. It either deprives children of schooling or requires them to assume the dual burden of schooling and work. See Standard 12: Child labour and Worst Forms of Child Labour.

Child participation

The manifestation of the right of every child to express his or her view, to have that view given all due consideration, to influence decision-making and to achieve change. It is the informed and willing involvement of all children, including the most marginalised and those of different ages, genders and disabilities, in any matter concerning them.See Principle 3.

Child protection in humanitarian action (CPHA)

The prevention of and response to abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence against children in humanitarian action.

Child safeguarding

The responsibility that organisations have to make sure their staff, operations, and programmes do no harm to children. It includes policy, procedures and practices to prevent children from being harmed by humanitarian organisations as well as steps to respond and investigate when harm occurs.

Child well-being

Child well-being is a dynamic, subjective and objective state of physical, cognitive, emotional, spiritual and social health in which children:

  • Are safe from abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence;

  • Have their basic needs, including survival and development, met;

  • Are connected to and cared for by primary caregivers;

  • Have the opportunity for supportive relationships with relatives, peers, teachers, community

    members and society at large; and

  • Have the opportunities and elements required to exercise their agency based on their evolving


Child marriage

Child marriage is a formal or informal union where one or both parties are under the age of 18. All child marriage is considered forced, as children are not able to give full consent to marriage.

Civil society

Citizens who are linked by common interests and collective activity but excluding for-profit, private sector organisations. Civil society can be informal, or organised into NGOs or other associations.

Cluster approach

The Cluster Approach was part of the 2005 Humanitarian Reform Agenda to enhance predictability, accountability and partnership. Clusters are groups of humanitarian organizations, both UN and non- UN, in each of the main sectors of humanitarian action (e.g. protection, health and logistics). They are designated by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) and have clear responsibilities for coordination.

Code of conduct

A clear and concise guide of what is and is not acceptable behaviour or practice when employed or engaged by the organisation.